Positive Behavior Support Systems Headache or Happiness?
As a part of the general applied behavioral analysis, positive behavior support is an approach used to improve the human behavior. This technique distinguishes from all the others as it prefers to use systematic approach as a tool to effectively cope with an inappropriate behavior. This system concentrates on the purposes of the challenging human behavior and tries to reduce all the factors that enforce its development. This form of behavior analysis is usually implemented in schools in order to help teachers and parents to decrease the inappropriate behavior of children, improve their education rates and communication skills. Therefore, there is a series of questions about the effectiveness of the Positive Behavior and Intervention Support Systems (PBIS), the way they achieve the targets and the purposes of the systems effectiveness. In this paper I will study, analyze PBIS and research the means through which they get the result being implemented in practice. During the study, I will study the purpose of the effectiveness of the system and the impact of the effectiveness on students self-esteem, efficacy and rates improvement. The importance of the positive behavior support cannot be over-evaluated as it has created such an environment that reduces the need for the punishment system and in addition it helps students with disabilities who constantly face a number of social problems that affect their studies and communication abilities. That is why I found it is very important to study this particular issue and to give the explanation of its effectiveness. This analysis can help to understand the techniques used within the system and to find the strong sides that have to be regarded in order to use this experience for the perspective innovations and future researches in the sphere.
The key purpose for the use of the positive behavior support is the real need in the effective form of the behavior analysis that can help to improve the behavior of children at schools and help them to reach a better level and communicate easily, both with each other and with their tutors. The problem of the unsatisfactory behavior is one of the main purposes of the low education rates and it is also the leading purpose of the most serious punishments, such as expulsion from school. This problem impacts not just the students, but the whole institution as more that a half of all the incidents that happen in school are connected with the problematic students, even though they might represent less than 20% of the whole number of students. That is the reason why there was elaborated a series of the specific approaches that aimed to reduce the rates of the school expulsions and serious incidents that happen at schools, but the prior harsh policies appeared to be ineffective as well as there was no productivity while implementing a zero tolerance policy. They have not been able to help the students with the problem behavior, to improve their attitude to the education process and their peers and to escape from the problems with the juvenile justice system. The effectiveness of the positive intervention and support system was extremely suitable and it helped to reduce the rates of the school accidents and the percentage of the expulsed school students that got imprisoned after getting out of the institution. If all the previous models appeared to be ineffective, then there is a question how the PBIS could be effective and how it changes life of the school students. That is why there is a need to understand the purposes of the effectiveness of the system and how it can benefit in the sphere where all the prior researches showed much more doubtful results. The role of the system in the contemporary education system is really high and in the long run it can become one of the decisive factors for the academic rates and the level of the education of the whole society.
While writing the paper, I have used a series of useful sources that provided all the necessary information on the topic. First of all, I want to mention the research paper made by Lewis and Sugai which is in their paper Effective Behavior Support: A Systems Approach to proactive School wide Management. Within the work there was represented a broad characteristic of the Positive Behavior Investigation and Support Systems and their difference from al the other initiatives that aimed to improve the behavior of the school students. Another important source is Building Positive Behavior Support Systems in Schools by Crone and Horner that is extremely useful because of the numerous proofs of the advantages of the positive behavior systems in comparison to the alternative initiatives. In addition, the work is full with the reliable evidences of the school staff that underlines the additional advantages for the school teachers that will agree to implement the program in their schools. I continued working with the research of Horner that has been hold together with Todd, Lewis-Palmer, Irvin, Sugai and Boland in the paper The School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET): A Research Instrument for Assessing School-Wide Positive Behavior Support. In this paper I found very useful definitions of several necessary tools that represent the main secret feature of the successful implementation of the PBIS. Another important source is The Relationship of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support to Academic Achievement in an Urban Middle School by Lassen, Steele and Sailor, where I found the necessary evidence of practical implementation of the ideas and theories of the system in the ordinary urban school and what outcomes followed the experiment. The paper was written in a clear manner with the perfect combination of the theoretical and practical dimensions that resulted in an excellent scientific support for my paper. Also I would like to mention another research of Horner and Sugai Introduction to the Special Series of Positive Behavior Support in Schools. This work provided me with information on the topic of the usefulness of the positive behavior support programs in the cases of the disabled children and in addition I found there a lot of evidence that supported the issue that the program is effective for both students and school staff. One of the researches that helped me to understand how the system is implemented to the common schools and what practical impact is being made by the initiatives, is Reducing Problem Behaviors On the Playground: An Investigation of the Application of School Wide Positive behavior Supports. Here I found a lot of evidence and data that helped me to analyze the question and make the conclusion that there is a positive outcome of the program settlement that gives the real improvement to the academic rates of the students and also improves the whole studying process. In addition, I would like to underline the importance of the work A School Wide Example of Positive Behavior Support written by Scott, where he gives the observation of the more opened perspective of the program settlement and provides the evidence of the positive changes in the long run for the whole education system and all school that participated in the experiment in general. The serious support to my analysis has been given by the research of Cohn Positive Behavioral Supports: Information for Educators that provided me with the important data and evidence that supported the positive outcome of the program implementation in the series of schools. The information was perfectly systematized and put in a correct order that also helped me quickly understand the issue and get involved in the process. I also want to pay attention to the research made by McKevitt and Braaksma that provided me with all the information on how the implementation process is being organized, what factors impact the program and the participants, who and how benefit from the system implementation and what is the final outcome of the experiment. The research was extremely detailed and provided me with the information on the topic of the practical process of implementation.
The methodology of the research required gathering of evidence and data from the specified sources and studying the received information for analyzing the outcome of the implementation of the PBIS in schools that impacted the students with the unsatisfactory behavior. The data and evidence analysis was hold to identify the main tools and techniques that have been used in order to improve the behavior of students, ease their communication and improve their academic grades. A lot of evidence showed that the implementation of these types of system is effective and it works for the improvement of the studying process within the school and gives extra time and new opportunities to both students and school staff. This can be regarded as the positive impact of the series of programs that aimed to reduce the problematic behavior of the school students. In the log run, the program shows the positive impact and works for the improvement of the whole education system. In particular, the detailed analysis showed the complex character of the system and that the programs that have been set required the involvement of all the participants of the process and as the result the programs touched all the spheres of the school life. This character of PBIS defined the positive impact not only on the behavior of the students, but it also improved their self-esteem efficacy and graduation rates.
The system of the positive behavior intervention and support is a complex that