Anxiety is one of individual psychological characteristics of a person, which is manifested by an increased inclination to emotional excitement. Besides, there are specific features of this condition and its general consequences. In fact, anxiety also exists as a positive and advantageous state. Nevertheless, some individuals have the acute form of anxiety that could become the reason for different physiological and psychological problems and disorders. This condition is the person's inclination to experience the mode caused by some expectations of negative or positive consequences of different situations. The main symptoms are mental tension, palpitations, and increased excitability. The best methods of treatment are the analysis of the case and active lifestyle.
The Definition of Anxiety
Anxiety is an integral part of peopleВ’s lives. All individuals experience it. Usually anxiety arises as a temporary situational reaction to the stresses of the everyday life. People can assume the presence of anxiety disorder when the condition deprives the person of an ability to normal life and activity (Sippel et al., 2015). Moreover, this condition is a separate disease with the peculiar symptomatology. However, some people have anxiety as a character trait. In such cases, the state of mental tension always exists regardless of specific circumstances. In other situations, anxiety becomes the peculiar means of avoiding conflict events. At the same time, emotional stress is gradually accumulated and can lead to the appearance of phobias. For other people, anxiety becomes a reverse side of control (Sippel et al., 2015). As a rule, this state is typical for those persons who are striving for impeccability, possessing increased emotional excitability and intolerance to mistakes, as well as worrying about their health. Moreover, there are open and closed forms of anxiety. In fact, a person experiences an open condition consciously. However, this state can be acute and unregulated or compensated and controlled. A conscious and meaningful anxiety is called cultivated (Sippel et al., 2015). In this case, it acts as a kind of regulator of human activity. The hidden anxiety disorder is much less common than open one. Such condition is often unconscious and can manifest itself in human behavior or excessive external calmness (Sippel et al., 2015). In psychology, this state exists as an inadequate tranquility. Therefore, the anxiety is a complex phenomenon with specific features.
The Causes of Anxiety
The feeling of anxiety is a long-lived experience of a vague, incomprehensible, and obsessive fear. This state has no real reason in the present time. Thus, it is always a forward-looking process. The origin of anxiety is always based on the existing personal experience or some examples from the past connected with negative events in the surrounding world. In fact, the person is looking for any confirmation of the negative facts in the personal history and transfers the received information to the future (Sippel et al., 2015). In this case, anxiety can exist not only because of presence in the personal background of some negative events. Often, it is focused on an object that has caused a drama for strangers. The reasons, which are not related to events in the personal life of an individual, lead to the appearance of an obsessive absurd anxiety. This condition has a significant influence on behavior and worldview. Uncontrollable anxiety prevents an individual from leading a habitual active lifestyle. It is often a main cause of neurosis (Sippel et al., 2015). One of the main reasons for the appearance of an intrusive anxiety is the specific personal constitution of the person. Suspicious and impressionable individuals are in a high risk group of developing an abnormal sense of this condition. Persons who have a high level of anxiety are also prone to the appearance of this state. Such subjects react very vigorously to the impact of any irritants. Another reason for the occurrence of anxiety is the person's hypertrophied shame and baseless ideas about the guiltiness. The individual who is convinced that he or she is a source of all problems and troubles is predisposed to the development of obsessions (Sippel et al., 2015). Moreover, pathological anxiety often occurs in subjects being ashamed of some of their actions or shy of their individuality. The presence of an inferiority complex, the denial of identity, and the lack of understanding of personal characteristics is a common cause for the appearance of abnormal obsessive states. The reason for the development of this condition is also the presence of a pathological fear of failure. Such anxious persons painfully react to any criticism addressed to them (Sippel et al., 2015). Besides, they are afraid to hear information about the poor quality of their activities. They are very sensitive to any words addressed to them. Thus, they want to receive confirmation of their value.
The Symptoms of Anxiety
Anxiety can be a symptom of serious mental disorders. In most cases, those people who are constantly in this emotional state have certain psychological problems and are prone to depression. Most diseases of the mental nature are accompanied by anxiety. Moreover, it is characteristic for different periods of schizophrenia and for the initial stage of neuroses (Guoqiang, Yaqing, Ying, & Wei, 2016). An alcohol-dependent person has a severe anxiety with an abstinence syndrome. There is a common combination of this condition with a number of phobias, irritability, and insomnia. In some diseases, anxiety is accompanied by delirium and hallucinations. However, during some somatic diseases, it also manifests itself as one of the symptoms. During the hypertensive disorder, people often have a high degree of anxiety. Furthermore, anxiety can accompany hyperthyroidism and hormonal disorders during menopause in women (Guoqiang et al., 2016). Sometimes a sharp condition exists as a harbinger of myocardial infarction or a sharp decrease in blood sugar in patients with diabetes. The obsessive feeling of waiting for troubles manifests this emotional state. At the same time, a person is in the depressed mood; thus, internal anxiety causes a partial or complete loss of interest in activities that previously could be pleasant. The state of anxiety is often accompanied by a headache, some problems with sleep, and a loss of appetite. Sometimes the rhythm of the heart is disturbed; and the person has the attacks of rapid heartbeats (Guoqiang et al., 2016). As a rule, constant anxiety is observed against the background of anxious and uncertain life situations. These can be some experiences about personal problems, illnesses of relatives, and the dissatisfaction with professional successes. Fear and anxiety often accompany the process of waiting for the important events or any results that have a paramount importance to the person (Guoqiang et al., 2016). A constant feeling of this emotional condition is accompanied by internal tension. It can be manifested by some external symptoms such as trembling and muscle strain. Sometimes there is motor anxiety or constant involuntary movements. Therefore, this state has different physiological and psychological symptoms.
The Treatment of Anxiety
Some general methods are used in the complex treatment of anxiety. However, before determining it, a physician needs to establish an accurate diagnosis and determine, which disease has triggered the symptom (Bandelow, Lichte, Rudolf, Wiltink, & Beutel, 2015). In most cases, physicians use tranquilizers and antidepressants to treat the patient. However, the treatment of anxiety with the help of psychotropic drugs has only a symptomatic effect. Consequently, such medicine does not relieve its causes (Bandelow et al., 2015). Some experts prefer to use only the methods of psychotherapy. Sometimes psychotherapeutic techniques are accompanied by taking medication. Physicians also practice the additional kinds of treatment, such as auto-training and breathing exercises.
In folk medicine, many recipes are used to overcome anxiety. A good effect can be obtained by regularly taking herbal preparations, which include herbs with a sedative effect. However, folk remedies should be used only as an auxiliary method, since without the timely advice from a physician, a person can skip the onset of serious diseases (Bandelow et al., 2015). Another important factor that affects overcoming anxiety is the right way of life. It is important to have an adequate sleep, meals, and an active way of life. Moreover, the abuse of caffeine and smoking can exacerbate this condition. In order to control emotions, the person must carefully analyze every event and action (Bandelow et al., 2015). A clear definition of the cause of this state helps to focus and switch to positive thinking. Therefore, there are many effective methods of treatment to overcome the state of anxiety.
Consequently, anxiety exists as an emotional state that is characterized by an expectation of unforeseen adverse or favorable events. In most cases, the presence of this emotional condition is connected with bad premonitions, strong tension, anxiety, and fear. Psychologists believe that the causes of anxiety can be chronic fatigue, various diseases, and frequent stress. In this situation, the person suffers from physical and emotional fatigue, an increased heart rate, and headache. The main ways of treatment are the analysis of the situation that causes anxiety, medical therapy, and a healthy lifestyle.