Category: Review


Race, Class, Gender in the United States is the completion of essays which Rothenberg uses to paint a picture of oppression for women, the minority and financially oppressed members in the society. In the book, the race has been defined as the sole determinant of human characteristics and capacities and that racial variations lead to unjustified superiority of a particular race. It describes the view that the socio-cultural and economic advantage position of the Europeans and Americans be maintained at a higher level than other races in a normal life situation. The power of race, gender, and class are explained in this collection of essays with the variations in power are based on the class system.


This collection of essays provides a study of class, race, and gender. Through past experiences, it is clear that racism has been practiced in many generations, however the numerous efforts that have been directed to change the differences in race, gender, and class in America. The past views of the Europeans and Americans superiority in all aspects against other races have been emphasized by Rothenberg in this collection of essays. In the History of the United States, racial and gender discrimination has been documented to have resulted due to the differences in race and gender. Racism is defined as a belief that race is the sole determinant of human characteristics and capabilities that racial variations that produce an inherent superiority against other races. Discrimination has been described as the process in which two stimuli have different responses in some aspect.

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Race, class, and gender are common problems in the American society, through history several groups have faced stigmatization due to their race, sex, and class as well. Many people in lower classes, particularly in wages and salaries, have been slandered in areas that they stay and not having the economic capacity to acquire the basic needs. In American society, women have been considered weaker sex for many centuries. This book has several themes it tends to explain. Firms it criticizes the pretentious nature of the Americans that racism is something of the past. In addition, the class is a social issue that many would not feel comfortable to discuss, particularly the upper class. Furthermore, in gender issues, women are still considered the weaker sex hence, continues to lag behind, especially when it comes to wages or salary. Racial Discrimination is a major theme in this collection of essays. Skin color differences have been used to explain the differences that exist physically and artistically and justify the maltreatment or dehumanization of an individual from an inferior race. People of properties are considered to be superior in intelligence and traits. An example illustrated in the book concerns cases, People v. Hall, 1854, Dread Scott v. Sandford, 1857, and Bradwell v. Illinois, 1873, that led to the creation of class differences in the rulings of the cases between European- American males, Negroes, Chinese, and women.

The race is more of a political categorization than biological or scientific categorization. Thus, racial differences are more correlated with the changes in society’s politics in America. Another example is the case in California, 1854, in which the state Supreme Court ruled in a case People v. Hall, which stated that the Chinese should be barred from testifying against Americans or the white since the Indians and the Negroes had been barred with Californian law. The state judges discriminated against he Chinese-Americans terming them as inferior and are unable to progress or have intellectual development beyond a certain level. In addition, the Orientals and the Hispanics were considered to be suited to undertake brutal, crippling, farm labor which the Americans, the white were not suited to perform physically. Furthermore, in 1857, the ruling of the United States Supreme Court, Dred Scott v. Sandford, clarified that the Negroes were not considered as part of the citizens of the United States Race is another theme illustrated in this collection of essays. Gender defines a particular set of socially constructed meanings that are associated with each sex. Women and men alike have been portrayed as polar opposites having differing abilities. Thus, the notion of differences is a construction that suggests the claims made that women are different naturally, and the profound difference reflects political and social ideologies instead of the distinction provided by nature. For example, in 1873, the Supreme Court Ruled in Bradwell v. Illinois that women were not allowed to practice law and further degraded the women that they belong to the “domestic sphere”. However, every society has different notions as to what constitutes a woman’s gender role versus a man’s role. In 1973, Roe v. Wade was considered a significant step in the recognition of the