Juvenile delinquency specifically refers to unsociable or unlawful behavior conducted by pre adults. These misconducts may include but not limited to Assault ,Homicide ,Rape ,Robbery, Arson ,Auto ,theft, Burglary, Larceny/Theft, Vandalism, Weapons, possession, Drunk and disorderly conduct, Drug abuse, Liquor drinking and selling, law violations, Drug Possession and intent to Sell Drugs among others(Siegel et al ,2009).
Causes of delinquency
Currently the intensity and severity of juvenile offences are mostly influenced and determined by the social, economic and cultural factors. Peer pressure, urbanization, family matters, migration and exposure of media are some of the main known factor that promotes juvenile offences.
According to Siegel et al (2009) nearly all crimes are relevantly associated to juvenile crime are addressed by Social Learning Theory, General Strain Theory and Behavioral Theory and discuss appropriate preventive programs based upon these theories. In reference to Gilmore (1990) General strain theory shows potential framework for understanding juvenile delinquency. He argues that, youngsters have ambition to attain higher goals. However, it is very difficult to attain these goals. Due to high achievement blockage, tension comes in causing individual to defy the law in order to attain their achievements. Specifically, Lower Class people are more venerable by stain theory.
Social Control Theory is the belief that the self control of an individual can be built by manipulating the processes of socialization and social learning. It is also thought to help decrease the urge to engage in antisocial behavior (Siegel et al, 2009). In this regard, it is evident that people are influenced to participate in criminal activities based on how they relate with others, beliefs, commitments and social norm. Behavioral theory describes specific penalty in reward of a certain behavior, juvenile acquire moral behavior by influence of reward or punishment. In case, a positive reward encourages a certain behavior becomes stronger by the effect of experiencing some positive condition. In case of negative rewards a negative.
Gilmore (1990) point out that, Juvenile Delinquency Practice involves a wide spread analysis of the most leading current cases in the major area of delinquency law with practical advice practice in the area of Suppression of evidence, including statements, identifications and physical evidence, Brady material impeachment of witnesses admissibility of evidence of uncharged crimes, missing witness inference witnesses under the age of 18 years, sufficient establishment of physical injury, trial issues involving statement and identifications of physical evidence.
The juvenile laws system function on the basis that minors are totally different from adults, both in provision of level of liability and possible rehabilitation. To a large extent, Juvenile law has a great magnitude of flexibility built into it. It in encompasses decisions that deem the interests of both the juvenile and the state and generally advances and addresses the following matters arrest, intake, diversion, detention, transfer Waiver, adjudication, disposition, Aftercare among others in view of rehabilitating the perpetrator to serve the society.