Category: Economics Essay

Supply and demand are the two fundamental concepts of microeconomics. They are the most important levers in a market economy, as pricing is based on supply and demand. The interaction of supply and demand defines what and for whom to produce and at what price to sell. The importance of these concepts can be studied using an example of Al Ain Dairy, Dubai. Being established in 1981, Al Ain Dairy came a long way from local milk supplier to the renowned leader of the United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) dairy market that offers a wide range of dairy products and other goods. Currently, the company owns about 2,500 camels and 5,000-heads of cattle. In order to maintain its leading position on the market, the enterprise must always pay attention to the demand for its products as well as its capability to satisfy it. Moreover, it is required to take into account all the possible factors of demand and supply (both price and non-price) that may affect the firm in a short or long-term perspective. Therefore, the following case study is dedicated to the analysis of the supply and demand factors that affect Al Ain Dairy, and study the possibility of application of the concepts of economies of scale and scope to the case.

Calculate the price

Calculate the price


The Analysis of Demand Factors

The demand is the number of goods and services, which the buyer is willing to purchase at a specified price and within a specified period. The demand is not constant, as it is always in motion. In the case of Al Ain Dairy, there are many factors that directly affect the number of products demanded by consumers.

  1. The income level of consumers. The higher is the level of income of consumers, the greater is the demand for goods and vice versa. For example, the recent financial crisis negatively affected the income of particular layers of the population (i.e. construction workers), leading to a decrease in demand for a variety of goods, including dairy products, by 15-20%. Political stability also has an influence on the welfare of the population, and, as a result, on the demand. Therefore, economic and political stability is among the most important supply factors that affect Al Ain Dairy.
  2. The tastes and preferences of consumers. The changes in the consumers’ tastes can occur due to the new fashion trends, such as a healthy lifestyle, or they can be of a seasonal nature. Thus, in order to keep up with the newfound needs of its customers, Al Ain Dairy has to expand its product range, offering new varieties of its usual products (i.e. cinnamon milk for Ramadan) and promoting new goods, such as camel milk, which is known for its health benefits.
  3. The time spent on the consumption of goods. For example, the demand for salt is always on about the same level because the product is consumed in small quantities, and thus, one pack can last for a long time. Al-Ain Dairy offers its customers one-shot milk packs that can be consumed very quickly and, therefore, are popular among school children and bachelors. Moreover, they are also popular as an impulsive buy. As a result, the demand for such convenient products tends to be higher during the school year, so the company has to review its manufacturing plans for that season.
  4. The time of the year. This is one of the most significant demand factors for Al Ain Dairy. First of all, climatic conditions in the UAE are rather harsh, with the temperature rising up to 50 degrees from April till October. Consequently, the demand for one-shot milk, and, especially, juice products increases significantly (up to 30-40%), so the company cannot keep up with it and is forced to outsource its supplies. In turn, such a strategy leads to an increase in transportation costs and, as a result, to growth in the prices for particular products. Another important aspect is religion – the demand for milk products grows significantly during Ramadan when it is forbidden to eat from sunrise to sunset. Therefore, the seasonality factor provides an additional load on the production capacity of the company, forcing it to seek new sources of the product.
  5. The size of the population. There is a significant amount of tourists and workers from other countries in the UAE, which results in an increase in the demand for various goods, including dairy products. However, during the hot season, most of the foreigners leave the country, decreasing the demand.