Abortion is the termination of pregnancy before the fetus is able to survive without depending on the mother. The loss of this is usually referred to as premature birth. Abortion is one of the most common medical procedures performed in many countries today. In some countries abortion is legalized while in others this is a criminal offence that can lead to prosecution. Globally, each year, 20 to 30 million legal abortions are performed while 10 to 20million illegal abortions do take place (Gnad, 2008). Abortions in most parts of the world are unsafe and, account for many deaths of women due to, many complication involved. In spite of modern, effective and readily available birth control methods, more than half of the pregnancies that happen in the world today are mostly unplanned. Many of these pregnancies end up in abortion. This has made abortion, a pertinent issue that this paper tries to discuss about.
Firstly, abortion in the world today comes in many types. Abortion performed before the end of seven weeks from the time of conception is usually done surgically or by use of drugs. From nine weeks to fourteen weeks, abortion is usually performed by a procedure known as dilatation and suction curettage. After fourteen weeks, abortion is performed using a procedure referred to as dilatation and evacuation procedure (Michael, 2000). After expiry of 20 weeks after conception, abortion can only be performed by labor induction, saline infusion or hysterectomy. Medical abortion refers to abortion induced by medication taken by the mother. It can be taken as a single pill or as a series of pills. Medical abortion is preferred by many women compared to the surgical abortion in that there are no damages to woman cervix.
There are reason that are given by different people to justify abortion for example, in case of rape, incest, health problems, possible health problems, unready, immaturity or young to have child, problems with relationship, avoiding single parenthood ,husband wants her to have abortion, can’t afford baby now, unmarried person, student or planning to study, financial hardship, can’t afford basic life needs, unemployed, can’t leave job to care for baby, would have to find new place to live, not enough support from husband, would interfere with career plans, would interfere with care of children or dependents, doesn’t want others to know she had relations or is pregnant .