Date: Jun 6, 2019
Category: Nursing Essay
Community Nursing Care Plan

The American population has been known to be diverse because it is composed of people from different backgrounds and cultural heritage. Among the races that form a substantial part of the American population are African Americans and Caucasian among others. Citizens are classified as African Americans if they descend from both the white and the black ancestries. Caucasians are people believed to originate from the Caucasus region in Europe. African Americans are thought to have been integrated into the American population through the widespread slave trade in both Western and Central Africa. It is through this that Africans found their way to US destinations, such as the West Indies, South Carolina, Central America, and the United States. Caucasians are thought to have migrated from Europe to the United States during the civilization period.

Over the years, the demographics of these populations have changed. Aspects, such as boundaries, housing and zoning, social facilities, and environment have changed. Correspondingly, changes have occurred in relation to the field of health care. New trends, infections, and chronic conditions have arisen and affected the American population. Among the new trends, which are also serious challenges among the American population, are chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and obesity. They affect a significant part of the American population, particularly the minority ethnic groups, such as the African Americans, Hispanic, Asian Americans, American Indians, Pacific Islanders, and Caucasian among others. For the purpose of this paper, chronic conditions, affecting both African Americans and Caucasians will be reviewed along with the appropriate care plans. 

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Chronic Conditions Affecting both the African Americans and the Caucasians

There are various chronic diseases that affect both African Americans and Caucasians. Among the typical chronic conditions are asthma, diabetes, and obesity.

Asthma

Asthma is a chronic lung disease characterized by alterable obstruction of the bronchi. It results from swelling of lungs, trachea, and airwaves. Consequently, this initiates the tightening of the adjacent muscles. African Americans and Caucasians are prone to the condition because of the similarity of their residential environments. The condition is caused by triggers, such as animal dust, pollen, dust, mold, smoke, cold air, and air pollutants among others. In 2008, 7.8% equivalent to 23.3 million Americans suffered from Asthma. Although people of all ages, genders, races, and socioeconomic classes were affected, the condition was disproportionally prevalent at higher rates among some racial and ethnic groups, particularly African Americans and Caucasians. The number of African Americans suffering from asthma was approximately 105.5 per 1000 African Americans. This was a notch higher than the rate of 78.2 per 1000 among the Caucasian.

Adequate healthcare plans are an integral step toward reducing the burden of asthma. If appropriate interventions are not deployed to control the disease, it can lead to death or life-threatening symptoms. Firstly, treatment and medication are vital to stop the asthma attacks before they progress to critical levels. Treatment involves learning how to recognize the likely triggers of the condition and taking the appropriate steps to control them. Among the treatment methods include medications in various ways. Firstly, there are long-term asthma control medications, such as leukotriene modifiers, long-acting beta-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, and theophylline among others. Secondly, there are quick-relief medications, such as ipratropium, oral and intravenous corticosteroids, and short-acting beta-agonists. Finally, there are allergy medications, which may be administered to control the allergic symptoms associated with the condition.

The second care plan for asthma is bronchial thermoplastic. The approach is used in severely ill asthma patients. It helps to heat the inside of the trachea with an electrode to relief the muscles with a soothing effect.

Diabetes

Diabetes is a common chronic condition, affecting a significant percentage of the American population, the minority, in particular. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2015), up to 29 million people in the United States suffered from diabetes in 2010. Another 25% of the total population is uninformed about their status. Further, 86 million American adults have had pre-diabetes, where their sugar levels are above the normal level but are not sufficient to be classified as class 2 diabetes patients. The rate of diabetes prevalence among Caucasians in 2010 was 12.8%, while that among African Americans was 13.8%. Diabetes is triggered by various elements, such as poor diets, inactivity and poor engagement in physical exercises, heavy intake of tobacco and alcohol, and poor stress management.

Various healthcare control plans can be used to control diabetes. Among the most viable ones, are proper stress management, being active physically, avoiding excessive intake of tobacco and alcohol, and ensuring the intake of healthy diets. Other measures include medications, such as intake of insulin therapy.

Obesity

In recent years, obesity has become a serious health challenge among the American population. More than half of all the American population are beyond the recommended body weight. Notably, the percentages are outrageous among the women of minority groups, such as African Americans and Caucasians. This is attributable to differences in adipose tissue. As Ferguson notes, 37% of African American women are obese, while 24% of Caucasian women are overweight. This condition is predisposed to inactivity and leads to up to 300,000 deaths annually in the entire American population.

Obesity as a chronic condition and a critical challenge among Americans can be controlled through various clinical health care plans and strategies. Firstly, it is important to note the intake of healthy diets. The cause of the condition is mainly attributed to the excessive intake of fatty and sugary foods. Alerting people on the dangers of their trends and encouraging them to consume healthy diets is a crucial step towards reducing the prevalence rate. The second intervention is promoting healthy lifestyles, as characterized by physical exercises. This helps the patients to lose excess fat and sugar from the body. Finally, there is bariatric surgery and augment pharmacotherapy. The interventions should only be used for controlling the condition in patients who have severely suffered the condition. This should be used as a last option.

 

This study has explored the state of health of the American population with a focus on the typical chronic diseases, affecting African Americans and Caucasians. The paper has identified the prevalent chronic conditions to be asthma, diabetes, and obesity. These diseases are triggered by various factors that most people are not keen to control due to the inaccessibility of healthcare facilities or ignorance. Borrowing from various literature, the paper has established that minority ethnic groups, such as African Americans, Caucasians, Hispanic, and American Indians among others are more likely to suffer from these diseases, as compared to the whites. This is attributable to genetic differences between the races, supposed determined by their ancestry origins. With a closer look at African Americans and Caucasians, the study has noted that they are among the most affected groups. Various healthcare plans have been suggested as cures and controls for the mentioned chronic diseases. For instance, diabetes can be monitored successfully through medication, adopting healthy lifestyles, and ensuring the intake of healthy diets. Obesity can be monitored through active participation in physical exercises, intake of healthy foods free from excessive fats and sugars and bariatric surgery and augment pharmacotherapies in extreme conditions. Finally, asthma, which affects the breathing system can be controlled through medications and allergy therapies.