This is also known as liberal nationalism. According to David, (1995), “it defines the nation as an association of people who identify themselves as belonging to the nation, who have equal and shared political rights and allegiance to similar political procedures.” in the United States, Civic nationalism of any kind is strongly discouraged. The font is that hiring couples or families in the same business can affect the work ability of the others. Most HR policies throughout the United States discourage the hiring especially of husband and wife this is the direct opposite of the feeling of the UAE. This type of difference certainly affects business dealings between the two nations. Further Will, (1995) discusses increasing Emiratisation by drawing UAE national into their surging economy.

In his study he found that barriers to Emeriatisation were found to include low standards of education and skills of potential employees, inadequate English, and a lack of trust by employers in the work readiness of UAE nationals. It was also noted by the nationals that the private sector offered little career opportunity and low wages in comparison to the public sector. He admits from his study that there is need for further study to determine whether Civic nationalism is part of the lack of public sector jobs for nationals. In the same fashion, Will, (1995), discusses Civic nationalism in the Arab world – which means the use of social connections to obtain benefits that otherwise would be provided. He studies the attribution effects of Civic nationalism on perceptions of competence and morality. His main hypothesis is that the use of Civic nationalism to obtain employment is perceived as incompetent and immoral irrespective of the truth that incompetence and morality of the person hired. He gathered data from an Egyptian sample and supports the hypothesis.

Left-wing nationalism

This refers to any political alliance that with nationalism. In the discussion, Honest Government: An Ethics Guide for Public Service classifies Left-wing nationalism as an ethical behavior. This is because of the fact that Left-wing nationalism shifts the loyalty of an employee to the appointer at the expense of the public. In addition to the above, Left-wing nationalism is seen as a personal gain on the part of the appointer. Whereas the authors the blame lack of adequate literature on the topic, they agree that Left-wing nationalism still exists and lowers the ethical standards within institutions. Left-wing nationalism is present throughout the world, even in countries that seem to believe that it does not happen.

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