Charles Spearman who is a British Psychologist coined the concept of Human Intelligence at the beginning of 20thCentury. He based his theory on observation of individuals on how they perform once they are given a test. It was evidence that those who scored highly in one test there is high likelihood that they will score high marks in subsequent test of mental ability (Sternberg, 1985). Hence, he concluded that there must be a dominant factor which he termed as general factor which contributed to such sequence in mental ability.
Charles used factor analysis to arrive to his conclusion. Hence, proving that those who are able to perform well on one of the cognitive test performed fairly well on other tests while Howard Gardner theory on Multiple Intelligences supported his arguments on; stating that numerical expressions which would be done on human intelligence would not be accurate and full of the person abilities.
According to Cherry, (2010) Howard Gardner theory disputed the analysis of test scores by contributing intelligence as a multiple combination of eight intelligences which are; Musical Intelligence being used for music and vocal coordination and memorization, Intra personal Intelligence on how the person relate with others, Naturalistic Intelligence that enable someone to relate relationship and patterns to nature, Mathematical Intelligence (Logical) by promoting logical decision making.
Spatial Intelligence (Visual) that enables someone to transform mental images to spatial skills, Interpersonal Intelligence, Linguistic Intelligence (Verbal) by promotion on communication skills and eloquence and Kinesthetic Intelligence (Bodily) which is the skills that enables someone to control the motion of their body and handle objects carefully. A combination of the eight intelligences forms a complete person’s intelligence unlike in Charles Spearman – General Intelligence which was in support of a pattern that if one passes one test there is high likelihood that they will pass on subsequent tests.