After all those priests manipulations, deists came down and identified a mission of stripping away the ideas of mysteries in religion and “priest craft”, by this they hoped to restore religion to its original form of simple and rational. A variety of beliefs concerning the soul are held by deists, some state that souls exist after death, in the afterlife, rewards or punishments are given by God in accordance with the earthly behavior. While some express opportunism by the idea of reincarnation or resurrection, others who are materialists show pessimism by either denial or doubt of the soul’s immortality. Deists used “mental reasoning” as the basis for their judgment that is “self-evident truth” and “the light of nature”. Deists’ authors also used reason as a tool, critical to the exposure and rejection of what did not make sense to them (Livingston & Fiorenza, 2000).
According to the Christian theism, God created man in His own image and likeness. God is the father of creation. Orthodox Christians believe in a personal, triune God. God is both immanent (He is in charge of full sovereignty and He is indirectly present and involved in the world affairs) and transcendent (He exists as a different entity from His creation). God is the basis of reality and the absolute measure of goodness. The Christian God created heaven and earth from nothing. He structured and organized the earth to function in a certain unique manner unlike a programmed clock (Barnett, 2003).
Orthodox Christians believe that, being created in God’s likeness means that they have special features different from other animals. They are creative beings, intelligence and personal. The existence of God is revealed to the humankind through the direct communication from God to man and the bible, and God’s nature as revealed from the creation story (Barnett, 2003). Humankind has the potential to acquire knowledge through revelation, learning, and experience. Such qualities have made man create secondary goods, which have diverted their attentions from God, making them to commit sins. This however, has not stopped God from saving their lives from death and separating them from Him in eternal life. Pleasant human morality or ethics is inline with the perfect law of God. The Christian God is a supernatural being in the highest authority, which is non-immortal and is not attached to any evil committed. All human behaviors are governed in accordance to laws and nature of God. Evil activities that are committed, signifies any deviation from the perfect adherence to God’s laws. Anything that exists on the surface of earth was created with a purpose, so the unfolding history is consistence and it is directed towards fulfilling God’s will (Barnett, 2003).
Strengths and Weaknesses of Theism and Deism